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 Staphylococci (9813-11) Examine classification and nomenclature, morphology, isolation and identification procedures, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci. Version Date: August 2011

Code 9813-11
Level Basic

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Additional Details

PEP hours: 11
CPS credits: 0
Level: Basic
Course Type: Express

Start Date: Upon registration
Completion: Up to 52 weeks
Delivery: PDF via email

Prerequisites: None
Textbook: N/A
Equipment: Computer with Internet is required

Learning Outcomes:

  • Describe the cellular morphology of staphylococci and state criteria for recognition in direct smears of clinical exudate.
  • State the optimum temperature, oxygen requirements and suitable media for isolation.
  • Describe typical colonies of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on sheep blood agar.
  • Describe the selective and differential properties of mannitol salt agar.
  • State two tests with results that usually indicate that a Gram positive cocci belongs to the genus Staphylococcus.
  • State the usual result for S. aureus in the slide coagulase test. State the usual causes of false negative results. Explain why a positive test may not always indicate S. aureus.
  • State the result of S. aureus for the tube coagulase test and explain why this is the GOLD STANDARD test for this organism.
  • Describe the principle of the latex and hemagglutination tests used as screen tests for S. aureus.
  • State which group of staphylococci are most likely to give false negative results with rapid screen tests and explain when a tube coagulase test is needed for definitive identification?
  • State the usual result of the DNase test for S. aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci. Explain why the DNase test is not a good screen test for S. aureus.
  • State the reliability of the thermostable nuclease test for detecting S. aureus and explain why it is not suitable for routine use.
  • Describe a screen test for Staphylococcus saprophyticus(S.saprophyticus) including interpretation of results.
  • Describe the cellular and colonial morphology of coagulase negative staphylococci.
  • State when identification of coagulase negative staphylococci to the species level is required.
  • Explain when it may be necessary to distinguish between Staphylococcus and Micrococcus.
  • List five tests that may be used to differentiate staphylococci from micrococci and give the typical results for each genus.
  • Briefly state what is involved in the definitive identification of coagulase negative staphylococci.
  • List and describe common infections caused by S. aureus.
  • List and describe three conditions caused by exotoxins of S. aureus.
  • Describe the pathogenicity of S. saprophyticus.
  • State where coagulase negative staphylococci are found as normal flora and name the most common species isolated.
  • Describe the pathogenicity of coagulase negative staphylococci.
  • State the current level of resistance of S. aureus to penicillin G and explain what causes this resistance.
  • Describe the appearance of zones around penicillin G discs when an organism is producing beta-lactamase.
  • State when it may be necessary to test for induced beta-lactamase and describe how this is done.
  • List the beta-lactamase resistant penicillins.
  • Understand what is meant by methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA)
  • Explain the term "intrinsically heteroresistant" as it applies to Methicillin Resistant S. aureus.
  • State the reason for supplementing media with sodium chloride when performing sensitivity tests.
  • Outline the oxacillin agar procedure recommended by CSLI for detecting MRSA.
  • State the usual in vivo sensitivity of MRSA to cephalosporins and vancomycin.
  • Explain the use of bacteriophage testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

Author/Instructor: Helen Smith, MLT
Version Date: August 2011