Miscellaneous Gram Positive Rods
Miscellaneous Gram Positive Rods (9828-12)
Improve your ability to isolate, identify, differentiate and be better prepared to deal with Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheria and Listeria.
Version Date: January 2012
PEP hours: 10
CPS credits: 0
Course Type: Express
Start Date: Upon registration
Completion: Up to 52 weeks
Delivery: PDF via email
Equipment: Computer with Internet is required
Facultative and Aerobic Spore Forming Rods
- State the criteria that place an organism in the genus Bacillus.
- Name the major pathogen of the genus.
- Explain why B. anthracis is dangerous to work with in the laboratory and state where cultures should be handled.
- Describe the cellular morphology and growth requirements of B. anthracis.
- Describe typical colonies of B. anthracis on blood agar.
- Describe three criteria useful for preliminary differentiation of B. anthracis from other Bacillus species.
- Describe the pathogenicity of B. anthracis in animals and explain how humans may be infected.
- State the usual significance of Bacillus species in cultures.
- List infections that may be caused by Bacillus species.
- Describe cellular morphology of Bacillus species.
- Explain how the KOH test and vancomycin susceptibility may be used to help interpret the Gram reaction.
- Describe food poisonings caused by Bacillus cereus.
- Name the organism used as a biological control for the autoclave and state the temperature required for growth of this organism.
Corynebacterium and Similar Gram Positive Bacilli
- List the common characteristics of the genus Corynebacterium.
- Explain the general meaning of the term "diphtheroid".
- Describe the frequency of isolation of C. diphtheriae in Canada.
- Describe the cellular morphology of C. diphtheriae.
- Describe volutin granules.
- Describe the selective media used to isolate C. diphtheriae.
- Describe typical colonies of C. diphtheriae on blood agar.
- State how genus identification for Corynebacterium is established, how the species diphtheriae is identified and what additional testing is required for C. diphtheriae.
- Name the type of test used for the in vitro identification of toxin.
- Describe the clinical symptoms of diphtheria and the role of toxin.
- Name the usual site of infection as well as other possible sites.
- State how immunization is accomplished.
- Describe the need for screening for C. diphtheriae in Canada.
- Describe the clinical significance of Corynebacterium ulcerans and how to differentiate it from C. diphtheria.Describe the type and incidence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections and how to differentiate from C. diphtheriae:
- State where diphtheroids are found as normal flora and the significance in blood cultures.
- Describe typical colonies on blood agar and typical cellular morphology.
- Explain when and how definitive identification is made.
- Describe the clinical significance, cellular morphology and susceptibility pattern of Corynebacterium jeikeium
- Describe the clinical significance of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and how to differentiate it from streptococcus species.
- State the clinical significance of Actinomyces pyogenes.
- Describe the cellular and colonial morphology of Rhodococcus equi and its pathogenicity.
- Name the two species of Listeria isolated from man and state which one is a known human pathogen.
- Describe the cellular morphology of L. monocytogenes.
- State the optimum atmosphere and temperature for growth.
- State when selective media would be required and explain the principle of cold enrichment.
- Describe typical colonies on blood agar.
- State the result for L. monocytogenes in the following tests:
- Slide motility
- Media motility
- Esculin hydrolysis
- CAMP reaction with S. aureus and R. equi
- Describe the epidemiology of infections in man.
- Describe infections in the neonate.
- List infections caused in adults and predisposing factors.
- State the reservoir of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, how man is infected and the type of infection seen in man.
- Describe specimens suitable for culture and appearance of E. rhusiopathiae in each.
- Name a suitable medium for isolation and state optimum environment for growth.
- Describe colonies on blood agar and typical findings in Gram stains.
- State reaction for catalase and motility and explain the importance of H2S production in identification.
- Name the two genera previously used for Gardnerella.
- Describe the cellular morphology in cultures and direct smears.
- State the optimum atmosphere and temperature for isolation.
- State the effect of sodium polyanethol sulfonate on growth.
- Name two nonselective and one selective medium for isolation.
- Describe typical colonies on medium containing human blood.
- State the criteria for presumptive identification.
- List the three biochemical tests commonly used to confirm identification.
- Name the antimicrobial commonly used for treatment of vaginosis and state if susceptibility testing is required.
- Describe bacterial vaginosis.
- Describe other infections that may be caused by G. vaginalis.
Author/Instructor: Helen Smith, MLT
Version Date: January 2012