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Miscellaneous Gram Positive Rods

 Miscellaneous Gram Positive Rods (9828-12) Improve your ability to isolate, identify, differentiate and be better prepared to deal with Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheria and Listeria. Version Date: January 2012

Code 9828-12
Level Basic

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Additional Details

PEP hours: 10
CPS credits: 0
Level: Basic
Course Type: Express

Start Date: Upon registration
Completion: Up to 52 weeks
Delivery: PDF via email

Prerequisites: None
Textbook: N/A
Equipment: Computer with Internet is required

Learning Outcomes:
Facultative and Aerobic Spore Forming Rods

  • State the criteria that place an organism in the genus Bacillus.
  • Name the major pathogen of the genus.
  • Explain why B. anthracis is dangerous to work with in the laboratory and state where cultures should be handled.
  • Describe the cellular morphology and growth requirements of B. anthracis.
  • Describe typical colonies of B. anthracis on blood agar.
  • Describe three criteria useful for preliminary differentiation of B. anthracis from other Bacillus species.
  • Describe the pathogenicity of B. anthracis in animals and explain how humans may be infected.
  • State the usual significance of Bacillus species in cultures.
  • List infections that may be caused by Bacillus species.
  • Describe cellular morphology of Bacillus species.
  • Explain how the KOH test and vancomycin susceptibility may be used to help interpret the Gram reaction.
  • Describe food poisonings caused by Bacillus cereus.
  • Name the organism used as a biological control for the autoclave and state the temperature required for growth of this organism.

Corynebacterium and Similar Gram Positive Bacilli

  • List the common characteristics of the genus Corynebacterium.
  • Explain the general meaning of the term "diphtheroid".
  • Describe the frequency of isolation of C. diphtheriae in Canada.
  • Describe the cellular morphology of C. diphtheriae.
  • Describe volutin granules.
  • Describe the selective media used to isolate C. diphtheriae.
  • Describe typical colonies of C. diphtheriae on blood agar.
  • State how genus identification for Corynebacterium is established, how the species diphtheriae is identified and what additional testing is required for C. diphtheriae.
  • Name the type of test used for the in vitro identification of toxin.
  • Describe the clinical symptoms of diphtheria and the role of toxin.
  • Name the usual site of infection as well as other possible sites.
  • State how immunization is accomplished.
  • Describe the need for screening for C. diphtheriae in Canada.
  • Describe the clinical significance of Corynebacterium ulcerans and how to differentiate it from C. diphtheria.Describe the type and incidence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections and how to differentiate from C. diphtheriae:
  • State where diphtheroids are found as normal flora and the significance in blood cultures.
  • Describe typical colonies on blood agar and typical cellular morphology.
  • Explain when and how definitive identification is made.
  • Describe the clinical significance, cellular morphology and susceptibility pattern of Corynebacterium jeikeium
  • Describe the clinical significance of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and how to differentiate it from streptococcus species.
  • State the clinical significance of Actinomyces pyogenes.
  • Describe the cellular and colonial morphology of Rhodococcus equi and its pathogenicity.

Listeria monocytogenes

  • Name the two species of Listeria isolated from man and state which one is a known human pathogen.
  • Describe the cellular morphology of L. monocytogenes.
  • State the optimum atmosphere and temperature for growth.
  • State when selective media would be required and explain the principle of cold enrichment.
  • Describe typical colonies on blood agar.
  • State the result for L. monocytogenes in the following tests:
  • Catalase
  • Slide motility
  • Media motility
  • Esculin hydrolysis
  • CAMP reaction with S. aureus and R. equi
  • Describe the epidemiology of infections in man.
  • Describe infections in the neonate.
  • List infections caused in adults and predisposing factors.


  • State the reservoir of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, how man is infected and the type of infection seen in man.
  • Describe specimens suitable for culture and appearance of E. rhusiopathiae in each.
  • Name a suitable medium for isolation and state optimum environment for growth.
  • Describe colonies on blood agar and typical findings in Gram stains.
  • State reaction for catalase and motility and explain the importance of H2S production in identification.


  • Name the two genera previously used for Gardnerella.
  • Describe the cellular morphology in cultures and direct smears.
  • State the optimum atmosphere and temperature for isolation.
  • State the effect of sodium polyanethol sulfonate on growth.
  • Name two nonselective and one selective medium for isolation.
  • Describe typical colonies on medium containing human blood.
  • State the criteria for presumptive identification.
  • List the three biochemical tests commonly used to confirm identification.
  • Name the antimicrobial commonly used for treatment of vaginosis and state if susceptibility testing is required.
  • Describe bacterial vaginosis.
  • Describe other infections that may be caused by G. vaginalis.

Author/Instructor: Helen Smith, MLT
Version Date: January 2012