Miscellaneous Gram Positive Rods
Miscellaneous Gram Positive Rods (9828-12)
Improve your ability to isolate, identify, differentiate and be better prepared to deal with Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheria and Listeria.
PEP hours: 10
CPS/ART credits: 0
Facultative and Aerobic Spore Forming Rods
· State the criteria that place an organism in the genus Bacillus.
· Name the major pathogen of the genus.
· Explain why B. anthracis is dangerous to work with in the laboratory and state where cultures should be handled.
· Describe the cellular morphology and growth requirements of B. anthracis.
· Describe typical colonies of B. anthracis on blood agar.
· Describe three criteria useful for preliminary differentiation of B. anthracis from other Bacillus species.
· Describe the pathogenicity of B. anthracis in animals and explain how humans may be infected.
· State the usual significance of Bacillus species in cultures.
· List infections that may be caused by Bacillus species.
· Describe cellular morphology of Bacillus species.
· Explain how the KOH test and vancomycin susceptibility may be used to help interpret the Gram reaction.
· Describe food poisonings caused by Bacillus cereus.
· Name the organism used as a biological control for the autoclave and state the temperature required for growth of this organism.
Corynebacterium and Similar Gram Positive Bacilli
- List the common characteristics of the genus Corynebacterium.
- Explain the general meaning of the term "diphtheroid".
- Describe the frequency of isolation of C. diphtheriae in Canada.
- Describe the cellular morphology of C. diphtheriae.
· Describe volutin granules.
· Describe the selective media used to isolate C. diphtheriae.
- Describe typical colonies of C. diphtheriae on blood agar.
- State how genus identification for Corynebacterium is established, how the species diphtheriae is identified and what additional testing is required for C. diphtheriae.
- Name the type of test used for the in vitro identification of toxin.
- Describe the clinical symptoms of diphtheria and the role of toxin.
- Name the usual site of infection as well as other possible sites.
- State how immunization is accomplished.
- Describe the need for screening for C. diphtheriae in Canada.
· Describe the clinical significance of Corynebacterium ulcerans and how to differentiate it from C. diphtheria.Describe the type and incidence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections and how to differentiate from C. diphtheriae:
· State where diphtheroids are found as normal flora and the significance in blood cultures.
· Describe typical colonies on blood agar and typical cellular morphology.
· Explain when and how definitive identification is made.
· Describe the clinical significance, cellular morphology and susceptibility pattern of Corynebacterium jeikeium
· Describe the clinical significance of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and how to differentiate it from streptococcus species.
· State the clinical significance of Actinomyces pyogenes.
· Describe the cellular and colonial morphology of Rhodococcus equi and its pathogenicity.
· Name the two species of Listeria isolated from man and state which one is a known human pathogen.
· Describe the cellular morphology of L. monocytogenes.
· State the optimum atmosphere and temperature for growth.
· State when selective media would be required and explain the principle of cold enrichment.
· Describe typical colonies on blood agar.
· State the result for L. monocytogenes in the following tests:
· Slide motility
· Media motility
· Esculin hydrolysis
· CAMP reaction with S. aureus and R. equi
· Describe the epidemiology of infections in man.
· Describe infections in the neonate.
· List infections caused in adults and predisposing factors.
· State the reservoir of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, how man is infected and the type of infection seen in man.
· Describe specimens suitable for culture and appearance of E. rhusiopathiae in each.
· Name a suitable medium for isolation and state optimum environment for growth.
· Describe colonies on blood agar and typical findings in Gram stains.
· State reaction for catalase and motility and explain the importance of H2S production in identification.
· Name the two genera previously used for Gardnerella.
· Describe the cellular morphology in cultures and direct smears.
· State the optimum atmosphere and temperature for isolation.
· State the effect of sodium polyanethol sulfonate on growth.
· Name two nonselective and one selective medium for isolation.
· Describe typical colonies on medium containing human blood.
· State the criteria for presumptive identification.
· List the three biochemical tests commonly used to confirm identification.
· Name the antimicrobial commonly used for treatment of vaginosis and state if susceptibility testing is required.
· Describe bacterial vaginosis.
· Describe other infections that may be caused by G. vaginalis.
Instructor: Helen Smith, MLT
Equipment: Computer with Internet is required
Start Date: Upon registration
Completion: Up to 52 weeks
Version Date: January 2012