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 Carbohydrates (9868-09) Review your knowledge of carbohydrates as you consider all aspects, from structure and bonding to metabolism and glycogenic pathways. You will study glucose methods, expected values, and glycohemoglobin and how to differentiate diabetes variants. The laboratory plays a crucial role in glucose monitoring in assessment of glycemic control in diabetes. You will also learn the relationship between insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide, as well as clinical significance and measurements.

Code 9868-09
Level Basic

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Additional Details

PEP hours: 16
CPS credits: 0
Level: Basic
Course Type: Express
Start Date: Upon registration
Completion: Up to 52 weeks
Delivery: PDF via email
Prerequisites: None
Textbook: N/A
Equipment: Computer with Internet is required
Learning Outcomes:
  • Define the different types of carbohydrates in terms of their structure and bonding. Give examples of each.
  • Describe the digestion of carbohydrates naming the enzymes involved, their action, and the major products of complete digestion.
  • Define metabolism.
  • Describe the phosphorylation of glucose and name the enzyme and product.
  • Describe glycogenesis, aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.
  • Discuss the regulation of blood glucose level in terms of specific hormonal actions and renal glucose clearance.
  • Describe renal threshold value of glucose and its relationship to glycosuria.
  • Describe the measurement of blood glucose by the glucose oxidase, hexokinase and glucose dehydrogenase methods.
  • Discuss specimen preparation and storage, reactions involved, and the compound(s) actually measured in the final step of the procedures.
  • Describe the use of NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH coenzymes in kinetic assays.
  • Draw and identify spectral absorbance curves of these compounds, and discuss their use in the measurement of compounds such as glucose.
  • State the normal serum glucose values for venous and arterial blood specimens. Use these to define hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Name a specific disease for each of these conditions.
  • Define diabetes mellitus and differentiate between diabetes variants IDDM and NIDDM. How may IDDM be distinguished from NIDDM in the laboratory?
  • Describe glycohemoglobin and its formation. Discuss its usefulness in assessing glycemic control in a diabetic. State how it can be measured in the laboratory.
  • Describe fructosamines, their formation and usefulness in assessing glycemic control in a diabetic and the most common procedure for its measurement.
  • State the differences between glycohemoglobin and fructosamine.
  • Describe the glucose tolerance test with the use of a graph. State its usefulness in detecting hyperglycemia, particularly diabetes mellitus.
  • State the usefulness of a 2-hour PC glucose and how it is carried out.
  • State the relationship between insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide; discuss their formation and biological activity.
  • State the usefulness of measuring C-peptide and insulin.
Author/Instructor:  John Chapman, FCSMLS, FIMLS, CLSp(H)
Version Date: January 2009